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1792 in science

Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach publishes The Tables of the Sun, an instrumental work for the advancement of navigation. The first Royal Astronomer of Ireland is appointed: the post is combined with the position of Director of the Dunsink Observatory ...

1793 in science

October 24 – The French Republican Calendar, devised by Gilbert Romme, is adopted by the National Convention. August 8 – The French Academy of Sciences is among the academies suppressed by the National Convention.

1795 in science

April 7 – The gram is decreed in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the metre, at the temperature of melting ice."

1797 in science

Smithson Tennant demonstrates that diamond is a pure form of carbon. Joseph Proust proposes the law of definite proportions, which states that elements always combine in small, whole number ratios to form compounds. Louis Nicolas Vauquelin discov ...

1799 in science

July 25 – At the Battle of Abukir in Egypt, Napoleon Bonaparte gains French control of Egyptian artifacts by defeating over 10.000 Ottoman Mamluk troops under Mustafa Pasha. July 15 – In the Egyptian port city of Rosetta Rashid, French Captain Pi ...

1802 in science

May 6 – William Herschel coins the term asteroid and on July 1 first uses the term binary star to refer to a star which revolves around another. March 28 – H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Pallas, the second known.

1803 in science

University of Tartu Botanical Gardens established. Publication posthumously of Andre Michauxs Flora Boreali-Americana in Paris, the first flora of North America.

1805 in science

Marie Jules Cesar Savigny publishes Histoire naturelle et mythologique de lIbis in Paris, the first illustrated monograph on the ibis. Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire publishes Exposition des Familles naturelles et de la Germination des Plantes, c ...

1807 in science

The Geological Society is founded in London; among the more prominent founders are William Babington, James Parkinson, Humphry Davy and George Bellas Greenough.

1809 in science

Carl Friedrich Gauss publishes Theoria motus corporum coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientum in Hamburg, introducing the Gaussian gravitational constant and containing an influential treatment of the least squares method. S. D. Poisson ...

1811 in science

Peter Simon Pallas begins publication of Zoographia rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum in Sain ...

1815 in science

August 1 – William Smith publishes the first national geological map of the United Kingdom, A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales, with part of Scotland. April 5 – Volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa. ...

1816 in science

Caleb Parry publishes An Experimental Inquiry into the Nature, Cause and Varieties of the Arterial Pulse, describing the mechanisms for the pulse. Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope.

1817 in science

Discovery of selenium by Jons Jakob Berzelius. Discovery of lithium by Johann Arfvedson. Discovery of cadmium by Friedrich Stromeyer. Leopold Gmelin begins publication of his Handbuch der theoretischen Chemie. Pierre-Joseph Pelletier and Joseph B ...

1818 in science

Carl Ferdinand von Graefe publishes his pioneering work on rhinoplasty, Rhinoplastik. Jean Esquirol produces reports urging greater medicalization in the treatment of insanity in France. September 25 – In London, Dr James Blundell carries out the ...

1819 in science

July 1 – Johann Georg Tralles discovers the Great Comet of 1819, C/1819 N1. It is the first comet analyzed using polarimetry, by François Arago. Johann Franz Encke computes the orbit of Comet Encke, identifying it as periodic.

1820 in science

Ground is set aside for establishment of the United States Botanic Garden in Washington, D.C. Christian Friedrich Nasse formulates Nasses law: hemophilia occurs only in males and is transmitted by asymptomatic females.

1822 in science

Jean Baptiste Julien dOmalius dHalloy identifies the Cretaceous Period. He also proposes the Jurassic System. John Phillips and William Conybeare identify the Carboniferous Period. Gideon Mantell discovers the first fossil of the iguanodon. Georg ...

1823 in science

Cambridge Observatory established in England. Olbers paradox is described by the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus Olbers. December 29 – Great Comet of 1823 first observed.

1824 in science

Franz von Gruithuisen explains the formation of craters on the Moon as a result of meteorite impacts. William Pearson publishes An Introduction to Practical Astronomy.

1825 in science

Pierre-Simon Laplace completes his study of gravitation, the stability of the solar system, tides, the precession of the equinoxes, the libration of the Moon, and Saturns rings in publishing the fifth and final volume of Mecanique Celeste Celesti ...

1828 in science

Karl Ernst von Baer lays the foundations of the science of comparative embryology with his book Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. He published von Baers laws. Belfast Botanic Gardens open. Martin Lichtenstein publishes a monograph on the D ...

1831 in science

Heinrich Schwabe makes the first detailed drawing of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Mary Somerville translates Laplaces Mecanique celeste as The Mechanism of the Heavens. January 7 – Great Comet of 1831 C/1831 A1, 1830 II first observed by John H ...

1834 in science

Hermann Helmholtz proposes gravitational contraction as the energy source for the Sun. Thomas Henderson is appointed first Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Johann Heinrich von Madler and Wilhelm Beer publish Mappa Selenographica, the most complete ...

1835 in science

Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville become the first women members of the Royal Astronomical Society. Berlin Observatory opened. August 25 – The first of six articles on discoveries of living creatures on the moon supposedly made by Herschel an ...

1837 in science

March–July – Charles Darwin begins privately to develop his theory of transmutation of species. November 6 – Establishment of the Public Garden in Boston Massachusetts, as a botanical garden, the first in the United States to be open to the gener ...

1838 in science

Peter Andreas Hansen publishes a revision of the lunar theory, Fundamenta nova investigationis orbitae verae quam luna perlustrat. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel makes the first accurate measurement of distance to a star, 61 Cygni, using parallax. Thom ...

1840 in science

The first known photograph of Niagara Falls, a daguerreotype, is taken by English chemist Hugh Lee Pattinson. Justus von Liebig publishes Die Organische Chemie in ihre Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie in Braunschweig, emphasising the impo ...

1843 in science

February 5–April 19 – "Great March Comet" observed. Heinrich Schwabe reports a periodic change in the number of sunspots: they wax and wane in number according to a ten-year cycle. March 11–14 – Eta Carinae flares to become the second brightest star.

1845 in science

Alexander von Humboldts Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung begins publication. August 28 – The journal Scientific American begins publication. January 14 – Physikalische Gesellschaft zu Berlin established and begins publishing Fort ...

1846 in science

August 31 – Urbain Le Verrier publishes full details of the predicted orbit and the mass of the new planet. February 20 – Francesco de Vico discovers comet 122P/de Vico. September 23 – Johann Galle discovers Neptune. June 1 – Urbain Le Verrier pr ...

1849 in science

Edouard Roche finds the limiting radius of tidal destruction and tidal creation for a body held together only by its self gravity, called the Roche limit, and uses it to explain why Saturns rings do not condense into a satellite.

1850 in science

Rewilding of Ascension Island begins. May 25 – The young Hippopotamous Obaysch arrives at London Zoo from Egypt, the first seen in Europe since Roman times.

1852 in science

October 5 – American apiarist L. L. Langstroth patents the Langstroth hive for the cultivation of honey bees. Last recognised sighting of a great auk, on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland.

1853 in science

March 17 – Claude Bernard presents his doctoral thesis describing the glycogenetic function of the liver. Anton de Bary publishes the first study demonstrating that rust and smut fungi cause plant disease.

1855 in science

Robert Remak publishes Untersuchungen uber die Entwickelung der Wirbelthiere in Berlin, providing evidence for cell division, which is supported but not acknowledged by Rudolf Virchow. September – Alfred Russel Wallace publishes "On the Law which ...

1856 in science

N. R. Pogson proposes that the ratio used in Hipparchus stellar apparent magnitude system should be adopted as a standard. NGC 6539 is discovered by Theodor Brorsen.

1858 in science

In Luxor, Egypt, the Rhind papyrus is found named for Alexander Henry Rhind, the discoverer; it is sometimes called the Ahmes papyrus for the scribe who wrote it around 1650 BC.

1859 in science

May 26 & June 2 – Geologist Joseph Prestwich and amateur archaeologist John Evans report to the Royal Society and Society of Antiquaries of London, respectively the results of their investigations of gravel-pits in the Somme valley and elsewhere, ...

1860 in science

July 18 – Total solar eclipse. Warren De La Rues photographs of this event, taken in Spain, together with those of Angelo Secchi, demonstrate the solar character of the prominences or red flames seen around the limb of the moon during such an ecl ...

1861 in science

Anton de Bary publishes his first work on fungi, describing sexual reproduction in Peronospora. Charles Thorp, Archdeacon of Durham d. 1862, arranges purchase of some of the Farne Islands off the north-east coast of England and employment of a wa ...

1865 in science

John Lubbock publishes Pre-historic Times, as Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, including his coinage of the term Palæolithic.

1866 in science

June 4 – Pluto not known at this time reaches its only aphelion between 1618 and 2113. Giovanni Schiaparelli realizes that meteor streams occur when the Earth passes through the orbit of a comet that has left debris along its path. May – William ...

1871 in science

June 8–October 2 – Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 in the United States, including what will next year become the Yellowstone National Park. Between July 21–August 26, the first ever photographs of this region are taken by William Henry Jackson.

1873 in science

Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel, working independently, develop a model of chemical bonding that explains the chirality experiments of Pasteur and provides a physical cause for optical activity in chiral compounds.

1878 in science

English astronomer Richard A. Proctor describes the Zone of Avoidance, the area of the night sky that is obscured by our own galaxy, for the first time.

1885 in science

The bacterium Escherichia coli E. coli is discovered by Theodor Escherich. The bacterium Salmonella enterica is discovered by Theobald Smith, working under Daniel Elmer Salmon. The genus Plasmodium is described by Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli.

1886 in science

June 26 – Henri Moissan reports the successful isolation of elemental fluorine by electrolysis of a solution of potassium hydrogen difluoride in liquid hydrogen fluoride. February 6 – German chemist Clemens Winkler discovers chemical element Germ ...

1887 in science

April – Carte du Ciel project initiated by Paris Observatory director Amedee Mouchez. Theodor von Oppolzers Canon der Finsternisse, a compilation of the 8.000 solar and 5.200 lunar eclipses from 1200 BC until 2161 AD, is published posthumously.

1891 in science

Jane Willis Kirkaldy and Catherine Pollard become the first women to sit final examinations in biology at the University of Oxford and achieve first class honours. The New York Botanical Garden is founded in The Bronx largely due to the efforts o ...

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